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Fire protection in hospitals and nursing facilities
Patients in hospitals and residents of care facilities frequently have restricted mobility. In case of a fire, these persons would be in particular danger. This is also true of visitors, who are only in the building for a short time and are often not familiar with the circumstances on site. In case of a fire, it is difficult for them to escape using the quickest and shortest route.
The risk of a fire in hospitals and nursing facilities is relatively high. According to statistics from the bvfa Bundesverband Technischer Brandschutz e.V., since 2013 approx. 260 (as of 06/04/2021) fires had been reported at hospitals and nursing facilities in Germany.
Hospitals and nursing facilities are considered unregulated special structures in most German states, and therefore require a custom fire protection concept. They must respond to the particular need for protection of these groups of people.
Important regulations apply to structural, system engineering and organisational fire protection in office and administrative buildings, such as:
- Model building ordinance (MBO) / State building ordinance (LBO)
- Model administrative specification technical building regulations (MVV TB)
- Building supervisory authority guidelines on fire protection technology requirements for ventilation systems
- Model line installation directive (MLAR)
- Model hospital regulation (MKHBauVO)
- Industrial Safety Regulation (BetrSichV)
- Workplace Regulation (ArbStättV)
- VdS 2226:2008-01 Hospitals, nursing homes and similar facilities for housing or treating persons – Fire protection guidelines
- VdS 2221 Guidelines for smoke extraction systems in stairwells
Frequently, a backup power supply must be provided in accordance with DIN VDE 0100-560 in consideration of DIN VDE 0100-710. Cables and lines used in this backup power supply must be installed and attached separately from the other electrical lines.
Lines and installations that pass through multiple floors must be installed in installation ducts, which must conform to MLAR 3.5.1. The closures of these shafts should generally be made of non-flammable materials and should be fire-resistant.
Sensitive areas like operation rooms, X-ray and nuclear medicine facilities, laboratories, laundry areas and rooms for electronic equipment are at particularly high risk and must be separated from other areas of the building with fire-resistant partitions.
Smoke extraction must be available for stairwells in these facilities, or smoke must be prevented from entering them.
Protective areas in hospitals and care facilities
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