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Fire protection in high-rise buildings
Building residential or commercial high-rise buildings results in specialised requirements for fire protection concepts.
Because of this, the following guidelines/regulations apply to the planning, construction, and operation of high-rise buildings:
- Model building ordinance / State building ordinance MBO/LBO
- Model administrative specification technical building regulations MVV TB
- Model high rise directive MHHR
- Model line installation directive MLAR
In addition, there are a wide range of other specifications and regulations, such as those for smoke detector systems, smoke protection pressure systems (RDA), fire department plans, lifts, etc.
In emergency corridors and stairwells in high-rise buildings, almost all components must be made of non-combustible materials. This is also the case for installation shafts and their closures.
In addition, two structurally independent escape and rescue routes must be constructed for all floors/fire compartments, meaning that two escape stairwells are required. So-called safety stairwells are also a special consideration. Pressure ventilation systems (RDA) can be used to prevent fire and smoke from entering these safety stairwells. Openings must be placed on each floor for this purpose to dissipate smoke. Since this kind of safety stairwell can be used safely even in case of a fire, the second emergency stairwell is not required.
Lines and installations that pass through multiple floors must be installed in installation ducts, which must conform to MLAR 3.5.1. The closures of these shafts should generally be made of non-flammable materials and should be fire-resistant.
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